The purpose of the KAMI MIZU™ bio filter system is to convert organic fish waste to carbon dioxide, which then dissipates harmlessly into the atmosphere. This process, called nitrification occurs in bio filter chambers that contain media supporting the various types of bacteria necessary to complete this process. It is now accepted that the way to achieve the best environment for the oxidization of bio matter is to create the ideal conditions where nitrifying bacteria can function efficiently. Happy bacteria work harder, and the way to make them happy is by giving them a good home (in this case, media) in a highly oxygenated environment. The more successful types of media are those containing the greatest amount of surface area.